Phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification to proteins and controls cell signaling and induction of cell proliferation, differentiation, cell death and other biological processes. Phosphatases reverse phosphorylation by removing the phosphate group added by kinases mostly to serine, threonine or tyrosine residues in a protein. Thus phosphatases have a critical role in regulating cell signaling, as generally reversal of the phosphorylation indicates a switching off of the signal. Uncontrolled or constitutive signaling by cell surface receptors may lead to increased proliferation, among other outcomes, and could lead to the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases. Therefore, after phosphorylation and protein activation by kinases, the signal must return to the resting or inactivated state through dephosphorylation catalyzed by phosphatases.
|Secreted Growth Factor Antibodies|
Growth factors, peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and other secreted molecules initiate diverse signals involved in controlling cellular growth and proliferation, tissue development and differentiation, cellular metabolism and other biological processes. They initiate signals by binding to a receptor on the cell surface, which then undergoes a conformational change leading to an intracellular signaling cascade.
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